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This study was conducted at an academic oncology hospital which is a prime referral centre for thyroid diseases. Immunohistochemical subcellular localization ( IHC ) analyses of PD-L1 protein was retrospectively performed on 251 archived formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) surgical tissues (66 benign thyroid nodules and 185 PTCs) using a rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (E1L3N, Cell Signaling Technology) and detected using VECTASTAIN rapid protocol with diaminobenzidine (DAB) as the chromogen. The clinical-pathological factors and disease outcome over 190 months were assessed; immunohistochemical subcellular localization of PD-L1 was correlated with disease free survival (DFS) using Kaplan Meier survival and Cox multivariate regression analysis.


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Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of detecting antigens (e.g., proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno," in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). The procedure was conceptualized and first implemented by Dr. Albert Coons in 1941.

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The International Harvester Company (abbreviated first IHC and later IH) (now known as Navistar International Corporation) was a U.S. manufacturer of agricultural machinery, construction equipment, trucks, and household and commercial products. In 1902, J.P. Morgan merged the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms, to form International Harvester. In 1985, International Harvester sold off selected assets of its agricultural division to Tenneco, Inc., who merged it with its subsidiary J.I. Case, to form Case IH. Following terms of IH's agreement with Tenneco, International Harvester renamed itself Navistar International Corporation in 1986.